The Remarkable Structure of the Qur’an



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Many Prophets, One Message


The Qur’an is a very unique book in terms of its composition. Its 114 chapters (or ‘Surahs’ in Arabic) are not arranged chronologically or thematically. Even within the individual chapters, numerous topics can be covered with sudden switches from one topic to another and then back again.

This unique structure at face value may appear to be disjointed. However, modern research has discovered a sophisticated structural coherence in the Qur’an known as ring composition.


Ring composition has been explained by Mary Douglas in her book “Thinking in Circles: An Essay on Ring Composition”. In ring compositions there must be a correspondence between the beginning and the end. It is structured as a sort of circle, or mirror image. The central meaning of the text is placed at its centre. The second half mirrors the first half, in reverse order — e.g., A, B, C, D, C’…

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The nervous system of the leech is similar to the human nervous system



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The nervous system of the leech is said to be very similar to the human nervous system.[1]  As the pictures in Figure 1 and 2 show, the nervous systems of a leech and human have some similarities, the most obvious is the central nervous tissue and ladder-like nerve network.

English: This image shows the nervous systems ...

Figure 1: This image shows the nervous systems of a medical leech and a human, side by side, illustrating that the basic segmental structure of the bilaterian nervous system is apparent in both.[2]

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